Tambaya: A bambanta tsakanin samfurori da kuma ayyuka marketing, please assist me by clarifying the general assumption that the later are of people factor, as if products are produced and conveyed to consumers by robots or machines (and not by humans) – Antonia Amadi
I clearly understand your perception of the extent of “people’s involvement” in the process of marketing both products and services. Before pointing out the justification of in this assumption of services marketing being more of people or human involvement than marketing for products, it is essential to outline what comes to play for this form of marketing. In this wise, don Allah ka lura da wadannan - Wannan "samfurin" a sayar da wani lokacin ba ya tsaya ga kayan ko da jiki kayayyakin da na sani kana nufin. Har ila yau, cewa a marketing (daga ra'ayi na mabukaci) "Samfurin" nuna kowane talauci-gamsarwa sifa mai mabukaci sami yin wani canji a (m of m da kuma ta jiki amfanin).
A wannan jijiya, samfurin ya kamata a gani a matsayin na nuna na da yawa fiye da jiki ko ri halayen. Misali, abin da kuke (da mabukaci) shi ne sayen lokacin da ka sayi wayar hannu – Idan ka yi sayan dangane da ban sha'awa zama na gaba na wayar ta casing, na musamman fasali da ke tare da shi; da iri sunan wanda kwatanta karko, status tsinkaya ko girma; garanti ko garanti; kafin ko bayan tallace-tallace ayyuka, da dai sauransu.
Abin da game da daban-daban "kayayyakin" wanda bankuna kwanakin nan na kasance bombarding jama'a da? Wannan bai yi sarauta fitar da gaskiyar cewa wadannan su ne kawai kudi ayyuka (ba kerarre kaya), gano, kasuwanci dabam, da akayi nufi don takamaiman manufa kasuwanni. Haka yake riƙe don m spades na ƙonawa da dama sadarwa masu samar da sabis a kusa da. Ko da lokacin da wadannan mafi sau sawa nasu "daure", shi ba ya portend halittar kaya ko ta jiki kayayyakin, kamar yadda abin da ake miƙa wa masu amfani da.
Na yarda da kai cewa "samfurin" kana nufin ma wanzu (daga masana'antu tsari, ta hanyar rarraba, To amfani) tare da mutanen da ake da hannu, kuma ba mutummutumi kamar yadda ka riya. Ka yi kokarin samun bayyana bambanci tsakanin magana akan "samfurin" sama da kuma "mai kyau" ko ta jiki da samfur (da ke, a ri da moveable abu ko dukiya; sayarwa, sufurin kaya).
Gaba, da wadannan yaushe tuna duk lokacin da "samfurin" a da ake kira a marketing, to ku iya mafi dandamali ga kimantawa da mataki na mutane hannu: Duk abin da (biyu m da in ba haka ba) cewa daya samun a cikin wani musayar. Yana shaida, a wuya na biyu ri, kuma ko iskar halayen (ciki har da aikin, zamantakewa da kuma m utilities ko amfanin). Samfur, a wannan batun, na iya zama mai kyau, wani sabis, wani tunani ko ra'ayi.
Da siffofin ayyuka a sayar a fili taimaka aikin fiye na mutane hannu, Saboda haka ku ji (da kuma gaskiya ma) na ayyuka yana da 'mutane factor'. These two definitions of services substantiate this to a very large extent – (mai) “An intangible that results from applying human mechanical efforts to people or objects” and (b) “Activities, benefits, or satisfactions which are offered for sale, or as provided in connection with sales of goods”. Har ila yau,, consider these features of services from a marketing perspective:
– Intangibility [Services are hinged on performances, can not be seen, touched,
smelled, nor even possessed]. A wannan yanayin, it is performed, not produced.
– Simultaneous production and consumption [Services are typically produced and consumed at the same.
– Less standardization [Each situation that requires a service is different and each provider conducts himself or herself differently].
– Perishability [A product can be stored for later use, not so for service. Service value exists at a specific time. Once it is performed, the service cannot be returned].
– Client relationship [The buyer in a service transaction is a client rather than a customer]. In this last situation, the client is “in the hands” of the seller (service provider); buyer is not free to simply use the service when he/she wishes (unlike for product); must abide by conditions established by the seller (e.g. schedule, procedures or rules, and policies), which are often in the best interest of the consumer.
Antonia, you can see that the above are highly dependent on the human element, hence any assumption of “people” factor seems appropriate. There is no doubt that there are significant differences between the marketing of services and that for tangible products (physical goods). Goods provide benefits because of their physical characteristics, while services are hinged on actions which people carry out (e.g. medical procedures; activities in beauty salons; accounting or consulting services; sufuri, education).
Above all, we must not overlook the value which service personnel provide because of their interaction with customers, as human beings (a typical example of “people” factor). Try to visualize what a typical service provision of an airliner could have been without the activities of the flight attendants towards customers. Services do not have physical properties to shape a customer’s perception, but human properties are vital. Saboda, services require to be defined so that customers can understand and value such, and therefore carry out patronage. This is why service descriptions need to highlight “benefits.” It takes a managed approach to creating, assessing and developing a new service concept to ensure the company offers the right things, to the right customers, and for the right reasons.
A karshe, the famous “Four Ps” of Marketing (Samfur, Place, Price, and Promotion) can be expanded to suit the “People factor” in marketing of services, to include three additional Ps of “People,” “Process,” da kuma “Physical Evidence”, which are all reflective of processes to facilitate a consistent level of service delivery. These factors are quite significant for a typical service provider when consideration is given to efficiency and quality management in the ‘eyes’ of the customer (da ke, “Process” da kuma “People” issues). Da “Physical Evidence” aspect has bearing on the relevance of service being perceived by beneficiaries, while being delivered, as quite tangible so they can be charged for and ‘seen’ as something required to be purchased.